Bazil Brosseau (LaFleur)


The Hudson's Bay Company Archives has put biographical sheets for some of their employees online.  One for Basil Brosseau can be found at:

http://www.gov.mb.ca/chc/archives/hbca/biographical/b/brousseau_basil.pdf

 One of the challenges of researching Basil is that he had a son named Basil.  Both men alternated between using Brosseau (and its assorted spellings), and the dit name Lefleur.  At this time, it is difficult in certain instances to know which Basil is being referred to in the old records.  We present the info as it was found, letting the records speak for themselves.  If you can add to the following info, drop us a line.


Basile SENIOR


From Joanne Peterson

     Basile Sr. joined the HBC about 1834 from the Parish of Varennes, Quebec and came west, arriving in Fort Langley about 1839.  He married again (his first wife having died in Quebec), in the custom of the country, a Cowitchan (unnamed thus far) who would have been (I believe!) the mother of Basile Junior.  He also had a wife Rose (Kwantlen), who bore him three children,

i. Mary (born about 1842) who married Peter Baker
ii. Florence (born between 1847 & 1849) info on Florence  courtesy of Florence's gr'gr'granddaughter Susan Massincaud
iii. Louis (born 1853) - Tricia, another Langley descendant, has details on him
iv. Rose (born about 1856, just before her mother's death)

     When the Kwantlen wife died leaving a small baby Rose, Basile quickly (with special permission) married a Nanaimok, Marianne.  It is possible that Marie Matilda Brousseau, born March 21, 1867, is a child of this marriage.

     Both Basiles were Dairymen at the fort (as recorded by Aurelia Manson, Don Waite, and Jamie Morton).  The Senior Basile's original 1845 contract with the HBC is still intact at the Victoria BC Archives.    

     Basile (Jr.) married Sarah Pierre, the oldest sister of Peter Pierre, the Katzie Medicine Man (see Katzie Ethnographic Notes by Wayne Suttles).  One of their children was Mary, who married John Cook and settled on Galiano Island.

     John was the son of Nicholas Cook (who came from Germany at the time of the Gold Rush and was probably called Koch) and a Cowichan (Comiaken?) mother, Catherine.  Nicholas and Catherine were some of the earliest to pre-empt on Mayne Island.  There is an amazing story of Johnny Cook being kidnapped by the Haidas and kept as a slave for some years as a child until he returned on another warring mission and managed to escape and find his home.  This story is on tape at the Archives, and is recorded by Mary Backlund.  

     After the HBC closed Fort Langley, Basile Jr. stayed in the valley and bought (pre-empted?) a piece of the 2000 acre HBC farm (still quite visible when flying over that area).  When he died in 1906, his obituary was in three local newspapers on January 25, 1906: Vancouver Province – A PIONEER DEAD; The Columbian – BRAZIL BROSSEAU DEAD; and the Victoria Paper – OBITUARY.


ST ANDREW' S CATHOLIC BIRTHS/DEATHS/BAPTISMS
ROLL # 1a - Page 45
Marriage of Basile Sr. to Marianne from Nanaimo

M
Brousseau
et
Marianne

Quarante-sixième Juillet

Fort Langley, l'an mil huit cent cinquante six de vingt-et-un Juillet, après la proclamation des bans de mariage entre Basile Brousseau dit Lafleur veuf de Rose femme Quytlan, né à Pontigny diocèse de Montréal d'une part et entre Marianne femme Nanaimok d'autre part, et les parties ayant obtenu dispense du troisième degré d'affinité, nous soussigné prêtre missionnaire avons reçu leur consentement, mutuel et leur avons donné la bénédiction nuptiale en présence de Augustin Willing et de N. Fallardeau lesquels se déclare ne savoir signer.

Signature de Broufseau [X] dit Lafleur
Signature de Marianne
Augustin Willing
Signature de N [X] Fallardeau

Lootens, Ptre

source:  parish records at St Andrew's Cathedral in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

Translated this says:

Mr. Brousseau
and
Marianne

Fort Langley, the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty six of twenty-first July, after the proclamation of the banns of marriage between Basile Brousseau dit Lafleur, widower of Rose Quytlan, born in Pontigny diocese of Montreal on the one hand, and between Marianne Nanaimok woman on the other hand, and the parties having obtained exemption of the third degree of affinity, we undersigned priest missionary received their assent, mutual and gave them the bridal blessing in the presence of Augustin Willing and of N. Fallardeau.

Signature of Broufseau [X] known as Lafleur
Signature de Marianne
Augustin Willing
Signature of N X Fallardeau

Lootens, priest

     It should be noted that, like his English speaking contemporaries, Father Lootens' spelling was not as precise as we would like it to have been, and he was using an older French dialect rather than the modern French used by translation web pages like Alta Vista's Translator.  If you can help us with this, we would be most grateful.

     The senior Basil was was at Fort Langley in 1839 with Ovid Allard, Pierre Charles etc. (according to D. Waite's book), and he was working at the fort in 1845 (since there is an agreement with the HBC dated 12 January 1845; at that time listed as Bazil Brousseaux, dit Lafleur or Basil Brosseau, or Broƒseau)

     In 1858, Basile had a native wife and probably at least one child living with him.  His son, Basil Jr., who was living and working with the Co's Langley farm in the late 1860's would have been old enough to assist his father in his work by 1858.

source: PABC - E/E/M31 - Aurelia Manson, Reminiscences, - Recollections of School Days, pg, 11

 

     Aurelia Manson referred to some of Basile's "daughters at Langley" in the 20th century, and Don Wait's genealogy listed a Mary Basile who died in 1923.  It is not known whether or not these other daughters had been born prior to 1858.  It is likewise unknown if Basile and his family lived in servants' quarters within the fort or in a residential structure at the dairy.

source: D. Waite's Langley - pg. 249

 

     On 3 September 1841, Basile, aged 3, illegitimate child of Basile Lafleur and of a Kawitchin woman was baptised by Modeste Demers.  Godfather: Ovid Allard.

source:  Catholic Church records of the Pacific Northwest: Vancouver, Volumes I and II, and Stellamaris Mission.

 

     On 29 June 1856, Rose Lafleur, daughter of Basil Brosseau dit Lafleur and a deceased Kwantlen woman, was baptised at Fort Langley by one Father Lootens.  Her godfather was a man identified only as Laferte.

It should be noted that in the original handwritten French:

  • Basil is recorded only as Basil Lafleur

  • Rose's mom is recorded as "d'une femme Quyslen décédeé"

Page 43
Baptism of Basile's God-Child

Quarante quatrieme Jeuillet (1853-1856)
Fort Langley - l'an mil huit cent cinquante trois le onze September Baptized Basile, fils natural de Tahowia Wahi et de N Quatlen, parrain Basile Brousseau, dit Lafleur

George Willing
Emilia Latreuill

source: old parish records at St Andrew's Cathedral in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada


BASIL BROUSSEAU -- AGREEMENT HBC -- 1845

Bazil Brousseaux, dit Lafleur

  • 2 year agreement

  • 20 lb. sterling for 1 year

  • Basil Brosseau

  • reference to Montreal?

Would he have been born about 1810?

  •  would only be 17 when Fort Langley was built in 1827?

  • died about 1870-1875?

Note: Basil Jr. born 1835 if he turned 71 in 1906 - he died in January 1906, at age 70

BASIL BROUSSEAU -- NORTHERN DEPARTMENT OUTFIT 1853 Rolls: IM808, 809
B239/g/33 (1853-54) B239/g/36 (1856-57)
B239/g/34 (1854-55) B239/g/37 (1857-58)
B239/g/35 (1855-56) B239/g/38 (1858-59)

     No information found to date regarding his death.

     Joanne assumes he was born about 1810 and perhaps died about 1870.  Now that Jean Barman has found him in the 1881 census, that means he was alive until at least 1880.

Note: an original agreement between Basil and the HBC dated January 12, 1845 is on file at the Victoria Archives (MS-0105, file # 3, item 17).


Basile JUNIOR


     The junior Basil was born at the Fort about 1837 or 1838 if he was 3 when baptised in 1841 and lived there all his life until he retired in 1894.

     He died January 23, 1906 (at age 70 according to obit which would indicate he was born in 1835 or 1836), living his last days at the old homestead at Langley Prairie adjoining the old HBC farm where he had worked as a dairyman (160 acres, Lot 24, Township 8, Dist. N. West).

     One of the executors of his estate was George BROSE.

     His daughters included Frisidine (who married Williams), Lucy (who married George Moody, son of Sewell Prescott Moody); Mary (who married Joanne Peterson's great-grandfather John(ny) Cook) and others.

His wife was Sarah BROUSSEAU and she's buried in the Pioneer Cemetery in Fort Langley (St. George's Anglican, at Mary & Church St. in Fort Langley).  Her tombstone reads: The cross is my saviour / SARAH BREWSEAU / DIED / AUG. 28, 1889 / AGE 47 YEARS.

Going by the dates on the stone, Sarah Brewseau was born about 1842.  The Older sister of Peter Pierre, her Native name was  (pronounced Tulikvie) and she was from the Katzie Band.

Sarah Brousseau's tombstone at the Pioneer Cemetery

(Note: name does not appear on vital stats, nor any comparable name.)

Genealogy of Simon Pierre showing correct names in Katzie Ethnographic Notes by Wayne Suttles (page 29)

Source: Information on Sarah originally received from The BC Genealogical Society.

Notes on Great-Granny Cook aka Mary Josephine Lefleur-Cook

Mary-Josephine Lefleur-Cook and husband John Cook
  • Her maiden name comes from father Basile Brousseau Junior

  • Her grandfather - Basile Senior - was from the Red River Settlement

  • She is registered in the Montreal diocese

  • A second source agrees that Basile senior married the Kwantlan

  • Other name that I thought was Kouyia the second source says is TULIQVIE - Katzie

  • priest interpreted name incorrectly

Name LEFLAARD: says there is reference in the Fort Langley Journals to him; and that he also used that name

Bazile Jr., married the older sister of Old Peter Pierre of the Katzies.

From T. Glavin:

Peter Pierre (the great Peter Pierre, one of last of the old time "indian doctors") had several children, one of whom was Simon Pierre, who travelled as interpreter for a delegation of Coast Salish Chiefs who went to London to petition the king and the privy council about the aboriginal title issue in B.C.

Simon Pierre was uncle to Cyril Pierre, a Katzie who lives on the Barnston Island Reserve.  Some Pierres of Cyril's father's generation changed their name to Bailey, one of whom was Old Richard Bailey, who up until his death in about 1980, was the last fluent speaker of the Katzie Dialect.

 

\

 

 

 

 

 

Death of BEAZIE BREASSIAU

BC Archives Microfilm No. B13089 # 1906-09-082466 – GSU # 1927117

DATE of death: 23 January 1906 (Will says January 24; Newspaper says Tuesday 23
AGE: 70 years born 1836? (Obit says died at 62?; born 1844?)
Sex: M
Religious Denomination: Protestant
Rank/Profession: Farmer
Where died: Langley
Cause: Natural causes – old age
Autopsy?: NO

Note: no indication of where he was buried or by whom.

OBITUARY FOR BASIL BREAUSSEAU (Junior) aka BEAZIE BREASSIAU:

A PIONEER DEAD

Mr. Brosseau Had Been in British Columbia for Sixty-two Years

   New Westminster, January 25 – (Special) – The death occurred at Langley Prairie on Tuesday night of Brazil Brosseau, who was probably one of the oldest pioneers in British Columbia, having lived at the historic Hudson’s Bay Company’s fort at Langley long before the famous gold rush to the Fraser River in 1858. He had been sixty-two years in British Columbia.

   Brosseau was an old servant of the company, having been practically born in its service, as his father was working for the company at the time, and he first saw the light of day within the walls of the rude fort which still stands on Fort Hill at Langley. As soon as he was able to work, he took a commission from the ancient trading company and continued in its service until 1894 when the company disposed of its branch at Langley.

   Brosseau retired in 1894, and had been living since that time with his family on the old homestead at Langley Prairie and adjoining the old Hudson’s Bay Company farm, which has long since been divided and sold. He leaves several grown-up sons and daughters.

Appeared: 25 Jan 1906 – Vancouver Province
25 Jan 1906 – The Columbian; same wording, different title: BRAZIL BROSSEAU DEAD
Also same wording in Victoria paper except title is: OBITUARY

BAZIL BROUSSEAU – WILL at BC Archives -- B-11290 (747/1906)

  • George Brose and Jason Allard, farmers, were executors
  • died 24 January 1906 at Langley
  • value of property under $950
  • value of personal estate under $50
  • value of real estate under $800
  • debts about $200
  • will signed December 19, 1905

     Effects consist of horse, waggon, plough, harness, household furnishings and 160 acres Lot 24, Township 8, District N West.

     The lawyer was Gordon Edward Corbould of Corbould Grant of 38 Lorne St., New Westminster.

Will - leaves goods/property as follows:

  • #1 - daughter Frisidine Williams of Harrison, BC

    • 80 acres of the NW portion of Lot 24, T8 to do with as she wishes

  • #2 - daughter Lucy Moody,

    • 80 acres containing house, barn, 7 orchards, & adjacent land

    • or to granddaughter Maggie Moody; in case of her death

    • to granddaughter Mary Moody

  • also personal property - waggon, horse, plough harness to daughter Frizidine


Basile BROUSSEAU -- SENIOR or JUNIOR -- dit Lafleur


Surname spellings include:
Brasseau Broƒseau Brousseax
Brausseau Brossault Bruseau
Breassiau Brosseau Brusseau (as per 1891 directory)
Beazie Brousea
Brewseau Brousseau
First name spellings include:

Basil
Basile
Bazil
Beazie
Brazil

Note: Henderson's BC Directory, Volume 3 -- 1891 lists:

Langley -- 1891
- Brazil Brusseau, laborer
- Brosseau, Lefter, fmr.

1882/83 Langley includes:
- Brouseau, B - farmer
- Fallardeau, Narcis (no reference to LeFlaard)


Other Brousseaus


     Marie Jodoin (dau of Michel Jodoin and Marguerite Bourgoin) married Basile Brousseau dit Lafleur (son of Augustin Brousseau and Josette Gagne) on 19 August 1828 in Varennes; there is no indication that they had any children.

     Received confirmation March 29, 2000 that Marie  Jodoin died on the 19th of August 1834, during "the Spanish flue".

source: Louise Berthiaume, secretary, Basilique St. Anne, Varennes. Hand written copy on file.


Brousseau Family Ties


Descendants of Peter BAKER

Generation No. 1

1.

PETER1 BAKER (Pierre Boulanger) was born in Quebec, and died 1897.  He married MARY BROUSSEAU, daughter of BASILE BROUSSEAU and ROSE?.  She was born Bet. 1842 - 1853, and died in 1923 at about 81.  According to the BC Historical News - Fall 1999, Marie Brousseau married Peter Baker (see early land preemption).  Mary and husband John were witnesses at marriage of Helena and John Charles Burdett.  Her maiden name was listed, but it is hard to read; looks like Kalic or Ralic? (Katzie?), but should be Brousseau (or Lafleur)?

BC Historical News - Fall 1999 lists Basil Brousseau's children as:

  • Marie who married Peter Baker (see early land pre-emption) and Basil Jr., who married Sarah Pierre

Children of PETER BAKER and MARY BROUSSEAU are:

i. ALONZO2 BAKER
ii. JOSEPH BAKER
2. iii. ALEXANDER BAKER
b. May 27, 1882, Fort Langley, BC Canada; d. April 13, 1958, age 75,  in ditch at side of highway.
iv. FLORENCE BAKER.
v. AUGUST BAKER.

Generation No. 2

2.

ALEXANDER2 BAKER (PETER1) was born May 27, 1882 in Fort Langley, BC Canada, and died April 13, 1958 in age 75, in a ditch at side of highway. He married SENNIE CUSTAFSON.

 

 

 

Notes for ALEXANDER BAKER: 

Les Baker (Albion), his son, was the informant at time of death
BURIAL: April 15, 1958, Surrey Centre Cemetery
CAUSE of DEATH: Suffocation by obstruction; earth & sand in mouth & nose.
MEDICAL INFORMATION: marked obesity, early signs of congestive heart failure, marked cardiomigally and advanced kidney disease.  Inquiry held April 15, 1958 since an accident at rear of industrial avenue; fell into ditch
OCCUPATION: Fisherman until 1953 (total 45 years)
RACIAL ORIGIN: French

Child of ALEXANDER BAKER and SENNIE CUSTAFSON is:
     i. LESLIE CHARLES
3 BAKER, b. 1909; m. PHYLLIS OSMOND.

     Here is information on Louis (who married Wilhelmina Fordyce).  Joanne met Clifford Scott in the first week of June. He is age 84, the grandson of Louis.  "What a WONDERFUL man!" says Joanne.

Descendants of Louis M Brousseau

Generation No. 1

1.

LOUIS M7 BROUSSEAU (BASILE6, AUGUSTIN LUC5, JOSEPH4, PIERRE3 BROSSEAU, FRANCOIS2 BROUSSON, FRANCOIS1) was born 1853 in Fort Langley, BC Canada, and died 1919 in est. age 66.  He married EDITH WILHELMINA FORDYCE December 09, 1880 in Cache Creek, BC.  She was born July 06, 1863 in Alexandria, BC, and died 1948 in age 84.

More About LOUIS BROUSSEAU and EDITH FORDYCE:
Marriage: December 09, 1880, Cache Creek, BC

The children of Louis BROUSSEAU and Edith FORDYCE

i. WILLIAM8 BROUSSEAU
b. December 01, 1882, Alexandria, BC
d. 1882, Alexandria, BC, age 0.
ii. FLOSSIE BROUSSEAU
b. Abt. 1884
d. Abt. 1920, est. age 36.
2. iii. KATHERINE MARY BROUSSEAU
b. September 22, 1889, Alexandria, BC.
iv. LOUIS BROUSSEAU
b. 1891
d. 1913, est. age 22.
v. CLIFFORD ERROL BROUSSEAU
b. July 20, 1893
d. 1973, age 79.
vi. STANLEY LEFLEUR BROUSSEAU
b. October 18, 1898
m. ANN HARDY.
vii. WILLIAM ALEXANDER BROUSSEAU
b. 1899
m. ANN SUTHERLAND, June 11, 1918, Kamloops, BC
3. viii. DELLI BROUSSEAU
b. September 06, 1900.

Generation No. 2

ROSE -- Joanne has virtually NOTHING on poor Rose, whose mother died just after she was born, other than a copy of her baptism (which says her godfather was Laferte).

Here is just SOME of my information on Basile Jr. and his family:

Descendants of Basile BROUSSEAU, Jr.

Generation No. 1

1.

BASILE7 BROUSSEAU, JR. was born March 10, 1839 in Fort Langley, BC Canada1, and died January 23, 1906 in Fort Langley, BC Canada, age 62?2.  He married SARAH PIERRE Abt. 1874, daughter of QEYE'Q'ELTX and SNINA'K'AYE.  She was born Abt. 1842 in Katzy Reserve3, and died August 28, 1889 in Fort Langley4,5.

     In the 1881 census, the name looks like Baazille Brisoe, he is male, age looks like 38 (born 1843?), he is of French origin, Roman Catholic, and is a married Farmer.  Sarah is his wife; the children are Maggie, Mary, Lucy, Duncan, and Frisidine

     The 1891 census says the houses inhabited was (w ½) wooden; 1 story, 2 rooms)

     Family # 157, name Brazile Brousseau, male, age 53 (born 1838?, married, born in BC., French Canadian, father born in Quebec and mother born in BC; Roman catholic, farmer, employed/wage earner.  Could not read or write (was not deaf/dumb/blind).  His wife is Sarah Brousseau (48), and his children are Mary (28, could read and write, and was married!), Lucy (22), Frisidene (22), and Mary Maggie (8) (Duncan is not listed).

     The 1901 Census indicates Bazill Bresseau was living next door to his daughter Lucy (Moody) at Langley.  (This may explain why he left her the acreage that contained the house and barn, etc.)

     Robie L. Reid says in  "Early days at Old Fort Langley" in BCHQ April 1937, page 77, it says that the dairyman did have a residence in the fort.  "Near the "Big House" was the cook-house, where the meals were prepared for its occupants.  Then came the stewards' quarters, for those who waited on the officers' table.  Next the residences of the supervisor and Indian trader, the cooper and boat-builder, the blacksmith and dairyman.  There were houses for the labourers, the Kanakas or Hawaiians, the cooper-shop, the traders' shop, store-room, blacksmith-shop, carpenter-shop, and warehouses."  The timing seems to be about 1858 at which time both Basiles were working in the dairy.  He later says (page 83) that although the farm became a liability by 1859 and was leased in March, 1859, the cows and land at the fort were not.

Notes for SARAH PIERRE

Her name:

  • At the marriage of Johnny and Mary in 1892 (Oblate), she is Sara Telekouyia of Langley

  • At the marriage of Lucy (1895), her name is Sarah Hlekaya.

  • Jean Scott's research shows her name as Kleka Pierre.

  • At the baptism of Lucy (Oblates, 1875), she is Kleka Ke

  • Note that the tombstone says she died in 1889; yet she was still alive in census of 1891!  Another MYSTERY to be solved!

The children of Basile BROUSSEAU and Sarah PIERRE

2. i. MARY JOSEPHINE8 BASILE
b. January 22, 1867, Fort Langley, BC Canada
d. May 07, 1958, King's Daughter Hospital, Duncan, BC Canada, age 92?.
3. ii. LUCY BROJEAN BROUSSEAU
b. June 08, 1876; d. 1967.
iii. FRISIDINE BROUSSEAU
b. Abt. 1869, 1891 Federal Census
13
m. Mr. WILLIAMS, July 10, 1895, Kekrait
b. 1878, Scowlitz.*
iv. MARY MAGGIE BROUSSEAU
b. Abt. 1883, 1891 Federal Census
15; Was it Mary who married VICTOR TWIST?
v. DUNCAN BROUSSEAU
b. 1883
16.

 *Notes for FRISIDINE BROUSSEAU: At her baptism in 1875 (Oblate Records), she is called Euphrosine Brousseau (daughter of Basile Brousseau and Klika).

Wayne Suttles writes in Katzie Ethnographic Notes (page 28):  "Later two of Basil Brousseau's daughters married whites, Victor Twist and Georgy Moody.  The name of this daughter has not yet been discovered.

Endnotes

1.  Alice Marwood

2.  BC Archives Vital Statistics Death Registration, Microfilm # B13089; Reg. No. 1906-09-082466, Incorrectly listed as BEAZIE BREASSIAU.

3.  Pauline (Wilson) Harris, Pauline, quoted by Jean Barman: "Basil married Sarah Pierre, born on the Katzy Reserve."

4.  Tombstone, "Sarah Brewseau died August 28, 1889, age 47 years."

5.  BCCFA, "Electronic."

6.  "Alice Marwood," Jamie Morton, Fort Langley - A Site history Df-23 no. 329, p. 265.

7.  Catholic Church Records of the Pacific Northwest, Vancouver, Volumes I and II, and Stellamaris Mission, Munnick, Harriet Duncan, Reproduction, 66-67, v. 1, 66-67 (St Paul: French Prairie Press, 1972), Basile Lafleur (B54) - "This 3 September, 1841, we priest undersigned have made the following baptism.1st Basile, aged 3 months, illegitimate child of Basile Lafleur and of a Kawitchin woman."

8.  Don Waite, The Langley Story Illustrated, page 55, "Another man that worked on the Langley Prairie farm was Basil Brousseau. He ran the dairy making butter, and he, along with 3-4 assistants, one of whom was his son Basil Jr., milked the long-horned Spanish cattle."

9.  Don Waite, The Langley Story Illustrated, "Here he (George Moody) had married Lucy Brousseau, the daughter of Hudson's Bay Company dairyman Basil Brousseau. Jr."

10. Don Waite, The Langley Story Illustrated, See diagram, listed 1894 as date of pre-emption.

11. Alice Marwood, GR 1422.

12. The Beaver, B-11290 (747/1906).

13. 1891 Federal Census, Pg. 25/26?

14. St. Peter's Parish, New Westminster (Oblates), Volume 1, p. 90, B 70 (1869-1879); also earlier volume 1, 1860 -- 1869, Euphrosine Brousseau, daughter of Basile Brousseau and Klika, baptized 31 July 1875- Sponsor:  Marguerite Brousseau.

15. 1891 Federal Census, Pg. 25/26?

17. BC Archives Vital Statistics Death Registration.

18. BC Archives Vital Statistics Marriage Registration, Reg # 1958-08-005756; Microfiche # B13237.


Employee Contact Person
Basil Brosseau dit LaFleur, Sr.
Basil Brosseau dit LaFleur, Jr.
Joanne Peterson, great-great-great granddaughter of Basile Sr., and great-great-granddaughter of Basile Jr.
joannepeterson@shaw.ca

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moved 28 July 2002
updated 21 July 2013